John N. Schumacher pointed out that. Spanish education played a major role in that transformation. Although secondary education is not compulsory in the Philippines, it is widely attended, particularly in the more urban areas of the country. To qualify for a Master’s degree, students must possess a bachelor’s degree in a related field, with an average grade equal to or better than 2.00, 85 percent or B average. Several Spanish missionaries cataloged hundreds of Philippine plants with medicinal properties. Education in the Philippines has a very deep history from the past in which it has undergone several stages of development from ancient Filipinos or the indios, Spanish occupation, American colonization and Japanese era up to the present system. During the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines (1521-1898), the culture of the archipelago experienced a major transformation from a variety of native Asian and Islamic cultures and traditions, including animist religious practices, to a unique hybrid of Southeast Asian and Western culture, particularly Spanish, including the Spanish language and the Catholic faith. Once a student successfully completes each of the six grades of primary school, he or she is awarded a certificate of graduation from the school they attended. Like the United States, the Philippine nation has an extensive and highly inclusive system of education, including higher education. Whenever possible we provide full details about the courses in each of the schools, including tuition fees, admission requirements, … Spanish education played a major role in that transformation. An analysis of the Philippine education under the Spanish regime was presented in the first part of Chapter III and the second part presented education under the American rule. After primary school, however, the language of instruction is almost always English, especially in the country’s urban areas and at most of the nation’s universities. The types of vocational fields offered by these vocational schools usually depend on the specific region in which the school is located. In 1590, the Universidad de San Ignacio was founded in Manila by the Jesuits, initially as the Colegio-Seminario de San Ignacio. Free access to modern public education by all Filipinos was made possible through the enactment of the Education Decree of December 20, 1863 by Queen Isabella II. (2003) investigated the relative importance of rural versus urban areas in terms of eight related living standards indicators including education. Spanish education played a major role in that transformation. These hospitals also became the setting for rudimentary scientific research work on pharmacy and medicine, focusing mostly on the problems of infections diseases. Among the subjects being taught to girls, as reflected in the curriculum of the Colegio de Santa Isabel, were Arithmetic, Drawing, Dress-cutting, French, Geology, Geography, Geometry, History of Spain, Music, Needlework, Philippine History, Physics, Reading, Sacred History and Spanish Grammar. Notable scholars including Dr. Jose Victor Torres, professor of history at the De La Salle, Fr. Non-University Higher Education (Vocational and Technical). Spanish historians, writing about the early Filipinos, affirmed that there was hardly a man or woman who could not read and write. Bachelor degree programs in the Philippines span a minimum of four years in duration. There are essentially three degree stages of higher education in the Philippines:  Bachelor (Batsilyer), Master (Masterado) and PhD ((Doktor sa Pilospiya). During the initial two years of study at one of the nation’s vocational secondary schools, students study a general vocational area (see above). The educational content of the primary school system varies from one grade and one cycle to the next. The Philippine Science High School System is a dedicated public system that operates as an attached agency of the Philippine Department of Science and Technology. up to the Filipinos to use them. End of Spanish rule in the Philippines. The oldest universities, colleges, vocational schools and the first modern public education system in Asia were created during the colonial period. The Don Honorio Ventura College of Arts and Trades (DHVCAT) in Bacolor, Pampanga is said to be the oldest official vocational school in Asia. Contrary to what the Propaganda of the Spanish-American War tried to depict, the Spanish public system of education was open to all the natives, regardless of race, gender or financial resources. Education in the Philippines fares poorly compared with other countries in the region. Aloysius Cartagenas STD, professor at the Seminario Mayor de San Carlos of Cebu, and Fr. Gunnar Myrdal, a renowned Swedish economist, observed that in 19th-century Asia, Japan and Spanish Philippines stood out because of their stress on modern public education. Students who complete a minimum of four years of education at any one of the country’s secondary schools typically receive a diploma, or Katibayan, from their high school. Topics for dissertations must be approved by the faculty at the university at which the student is studying. The Black Legend propagation, black propaganda and yellow journalism were rampant in the last two decades of Spanish Colonial Period and throughout the American Colonial Period. The Spanish government established a school for midwives in 1879, and Escuela Normal Superior de Maestras (Superior Normal School) for female teachers in 1892. Education in the Philippines: Structure Education in the Philippines is offered through formal and non-formal systems. There are four levels of accreditation: The credit and degree structure of university education in the Philippines bears a striking resemblance to that of the United States. In the Philippines, the academic school year begins in June and concludes in March, a period that covers a total of 40 weeks. In 1871, several schools of medicine and pharmacy were opened. Major subjects include maths, science, English, Filipino and social sciences. The development of secondary s::hools in the Philippines The education system is administered and overseen by the Department of Education, a federal department with offices in each of the country’s 13 regions. The concept of mass education was relatively new, an offshoot of the 18th century Age of Enlightenment. The curriculum at the nation’s 9 Secondary Science schools is very similar to that of the General Secondary Schools. Such was the state of culture of the Filipinos when Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the Philippines at the head of a Spanish expedition searching for the Spice Islands in 1521. In the present day, the United States continues to influence the Philippines education system, as many of the country’s teachers and professors have earned advanced degrees from United States universities. Vocational high schools in the Philippines differ from their General Secondary School counterparts in that they place more focus on vocationally-oriented training, the trades and practical arts. Schooling is compulsory for 6 years, beginning at age 7 and culminating at age 12. The United States left a lasting impression on the Philippine school system. These 6 years represent a child’s primary school education. A cumulative points system is typically used as the basis for promotion. In time, the Spanish also set up colleges (segregated by gender). The Philippines ranks as the 25 th in the list of countries with the worst education system. Within months of their arrival in Tigbauan which is in Iloilo province located in the island of Panay, Pedro Chirino and Francisco Martín had established a school for Visayan boys in 1593 in which they taught not only the catechism but reading, writing, Spanish, and liturgical music. Graduates of the PSHS are bound by law to major in the pure and applied sciences, mathematics, or engineering upon entering college. As a result, the average American at the time was less educated than the average Filipino, something that was specially true among the troops that fought in the Philippine-American War, since most of the soldiers generally were of humble social origins. The early friars learned the local languages and the Baybayin script to better communicate with the locals. That's about 35% of the population in School age. 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